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Religion and gender differences in stress, happiness and life satisfaction

Carmella E. Ading, Chua Bee Seok, Shazia Iqbal Hashmi, Ismail Maakip

Volume : Vol. 1, 2012

Publication Date : 2012-12-31

SAPJ Code : 2050, 5110, 0

Keywords : happiness,spiritual involvement,life satisfaction

Abstract : Although the positive association between religiosity and gender differences in stress, happiness and life satisfaction is well documented, much theoretical and empirical controversy surround the question of how religion and gender actually shape life satisfaction and effect stress and happiness. This study aims to look at religion and gender differences in stress, happiness and life satisfaction among the university students and also examined the effects of spiritual involvement and happiness on life satisfaction. One hundred and seventy eight (178) students from a public University in Malaysia participated in the study. Adapted version of Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (Hatch et. Al., 1998), The Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) and The Oxford Happiness Inventory (Argyle, 2001) were used to collect data. t test was use to measure the differences in stress, spiritual involvement, happiness, and life satisfaction between the male and the female students, and it was found that, there were no significant differences between male and female students in terms of stress, spiritual involvement and life satisfaction but only happiness(t = 2.59, p < .05). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was use to measure the differences in stress, spiritual involvement, happiness, and life satisfaction by the students’ religious affiliation. Regression analysis was used to examine the effect of stress, spiritual involvement and happiness on life satisfaction. The regression results showed that 30% of the variance in life satisfaction can be explained by the variable of stress, spiritual involvement and happiness. Findings of the present study can help students applying religion as a coping strategy against stress thus enhancing their life satisfaction and happiness.

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The effect of emotional intelligence and job stress on mental health problems: a study among nurses

Chua Bee Seok, Shazia Iqbal Hashmi, Tan Cho Chiew

Volume : Vol. 1, 2012

Publication Date : 2012-12-31

SAPJ Code : 2050, 2060, 0

Keywords : emotional intelligence,job stress,mental health problem, nurses.

Abstract : The study attempted to examine the effect of emotional intelligence as a moderator of the job stress and mental health problem relationship. Data were collected from 677 nurses (361 trainees and 316 trained nurses) from three general hospitals in Malaysia. The Job Stress Survey (JSS) was adapted to assess generic sources of occupational stress. The Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) was adapted to assess level of emotional competence and a scale of Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) was adopted to investigate mental health problems among nurses. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of sources of stress and emotional competency on mental health problem. We also evaluated whether nurses who were skilful at regulating their own and others’ emotions would be able to protect themselves from the adverse effects of stress and reporting less mental health problem than those low in emotional intelligence.

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Factors predicting recycling behaviour among Malaysian

Jasmine Adela Mutang, Sharifah Azizah Haron

Volume : Vol. 1, 2012

Publication Date : 2012-12-31

SAPJ Code : 4050, 4060, 0

Keywords : recycling behaviour, recycling attitude,values towards the environment

Abstract : Malaysia is facing a crisis in solid waste management due to rapid urbanization and high concentration of population. Sadly, public participation in recycling is still very low despite rigorous campaigns conducted by the government. Only a small amount of solid waste generated in Malaysia is recycled – far below the rate of 15 to 40 percent in developed countries. This study examines the recycling behaviour among urban households within the Klang Valley area. Specifically, the purpose of the study is to determine factors that increase the probability of recycling behaviour among households. Data analysis technique used consisted of bivariate analysis and logistic regression. The results of logistics regression testing for socio-demographic and psychological characteristics show partial significance at a probability level of .050. The result of Hosmer and Lamershow Goodness-of-fit shows total significance at .050. The logistic model that utilizes study data drawn from the 342 samples and the results of the Binomial Logistic Regression indicate that recycling increased among respondents who are married, possess higher education levels have positive values towards the environment and positive attitudes towards recycling. Interestingly, gender, different types of employment status, types of accommodation, house ownership, and knowledge of recycling were not reliable predictors of recycling behaviour. The findings of the study could be used for designing recycling schemes although it is clear that a one-size-fits-all approach is not acceptable.

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Psychoanalysis approach on depression traits among young inmates

Saralah Devi Mariamdaran, Noor Azniza Ishak

Volume :

Publication Date : 2012-12-31

SAPJ Code : 3020, 3060, 0

Keywords : psychoanalysis,depression,young inmates

Abstract : This study is aimed to determine the sources of depressive traits among the young inmates in prison. The psychoanalysis approach is used to diagnose problems associated with depressive traits using experimental methods for 6-session structure groups. Treatment based on Psychoanalysis looks into the sources of depression and the Id, Ego and Superego of young inmates. A module-based on Psychoanalysis techniques has been built and the main concept of this module is to improve the inmate’s own reaction to depression. The inmates believe that depression is due to their aggressive behavior. In general, there were no changes in the inmate’s depression, but after the treatment, finding show lesser depression in the inmates. Inmates, who are able to control their feelings in situations of depression, are presumed to be able to manage their behavior in all situations. A handful of inmates were unable to improve their depression and the reasons for this are discussed further in this research paper. In conclusion, it appears Id, Ego and Superego of Inmates has room to choose changes in depression behavior.

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PROSES PEMBENTUKAN INSTRUMEN KEBAHAGIAAN SUBJEKTIF ORANG KURANG UPAYA-FIZIKAL (IKSOKU-F)

Ferlis Bullare @ Bahari, Murnizam Halik, Rosnah Ismail

Volume : Vol. 3, 2015

Publication Date : -0001-11-30

SAPJ Code : 3010, 3060, 2100

Keywords : Kebahagiaan Subjektif,Orang Kurang Upaya-Fizikal (OKU-F),Grounded Theory,Mixed Methods

Abstract :

Kajian ini dijalankan untuk membentuk Instrumen Kebahagiaan Subjektif Orang Kurang Upaya-Fizikal (IKSOKU-F). Instrumen ini terdiri daripada dua skala iaitu Skala Dimensi Kebahagiaan Subjektif Orang Kurang Upaya-Fizikal (SDKSOKU-F) dan Skala Sumber Kebahagiaan Subjektif Orang Kurang Upaya-Fizikal (SSKSOKU-F). Seramai 29 OKU-Fizikal (20 lelaki & 9 perempuan) yang berumur antara 18 hingga 55 tahun dijadikan responden kajian. Seramai 15 orang (51.7%) responden dikategorikan sebagai hilang keupayaan fizikal secara congenital dan 14 orang (48.3%) dikategori sebagai hilang keupayaan fizikal secara acquired. Dari segi jenis kekurangupayaan fizikal: kecederaan saraf tunjang (34.5%), limb defect congenital (17.3%), putus kaki (10.3%), polio (10.3%), cerebral palsy (10.3%), Guillain–Barré syndrome, GBS, kerdil, limb defect acquired, spastik, dan kecederaan saraf tunjang dan putus kaki (OKU-F pelbagai) masing-masing seorang (3.4%). Proses pembentukan Instrumen Kebahagiaan Orang Kurang Upaya-Fizikal (IKSOKU-F) adalah berdasarkan dapatan kajian fasa kualitatif menggunakan grounded theory. Dalam kajian kualitatif grounded theory, kategori teras yang ditemui adalah kebahagiaan subjektif yang mempunyai enam dimensi iaitu kepuasan, kendiri, makna hidup, emosi, kesejahteraan rohani dan pemikiran positif. Sementara itu, terdapat 10 sumber atau faktor kebahagiaan OKU-F yang dijangka memberi pengaruh kepada kebahagiaan subjektif OKU-F iaitu interaksi sosial, sokongan penjaga/keluarga, sokongan rakan, sokongan institusi, sokongan peralatan, kebolehaksesan, kesaksamaan, pencapaian, kebebasan, dan kesihatan fizikal. Kategori dan properties yang berjaya diperoleh dalam kajian kualitatif grounded theory kemudiannya digunakan untuk membina item bagi mengukur dimensi dan sumber kebahagiaan OKU-F. Terdapat dua panduan dan rujukan penting dalam proses pembinaan item daripada dapatan kajian kualitatif iaitu daripada Creswell dan Plano Clark (2011) dan Rosenbaum (2011). Kedua-dua panduan dan rujukan tersebut memberi fokus kepada cara membina item hasil daripada dapatan kajian kualitatif grounded theory. Creswell dan Plano-Clark (2011) menyatakan bahawa penyelidik mixed methods boleh menggunakan kategori teras sebagai konstruk kuantitatif, kategori umum sebagai skala yang boleh diukur, kod individu digunakan sebagai pembolehubah, dan kenyataan spesifik daripada individu boleh digunakan sebagai item spesifik atau pernyataan dalam instrumen (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011: 188 & 246). Rosenbaum (2011) telah memberi contoh ilustrasi bagaimana item dapat dibina hasil daripada kajian kualitatif grounded theory. Penerangan lebih lanjut dibincangkan dalam penulisan artikel ini. Pembentukan IKSOKU-F membolehkan OKU-F mengetahui dimensi dan sumber kebahagiaan mereka dengan cara yang lebih saintifik dan objektif.

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