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BODY DISSATISFACTION, SOCIAL APPEARANCE ANXIETY AND SELF-OBJECTIFICATION: A NARRATIVE REVIEW OF DISORDERED EATING

Liew Jia Xian, Chooi Weng Tink

Volume : Vol 10 Issue 2 2022

Publication Date : 2022-12-20

SAPJ Code : 1010, 2030, 2070

Keywords : Body Image; Body Dissatisfaction; Ideals of Thinness; Self-Objectification; Eating Disorders; Anxiety

Abstract : Humans form opinions about their bodies at a very early age, and children as young as 3 years old displayed body confidence issues. The likelihood of experiencing body dissatisfaction increases across childhood and into adolescence. Body mass index (BMI) is an important predictor of body dissatisfaction, and BMI is associated with body satisfaction across cultures. Studies on disordered eating and body dissatisfaction were predominantly conducted in Western countries. However, several recent studies suggested that women in Asian countries were vulnerable to disordered eating, similar to their Western counterparts. In Malaysia, negative body image perceptions, weight obsession and disordered eating were usually identified in adolescents with peer and emotional problems. Having a negative body image is associated with social appearance anxiety. The fear of evaluation by oneself and others is often associated with body image disturbance which is a key risk factor for the development of eating disorder symptoms among adolescents. Social appearance anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Women diagnosed with an eating disorder tend to have higher levels of BMI, drive for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. Objectification theory could explain the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Objectification theory has linked self-objectification to negative emotional experiences and disordered eating behaviour in cultures that sexually objectify the female body. High levels of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours are often associated with greater objectification of their bodies.

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BREATHING EXERCISES FOR ANXIETY MANAGEMENT: A SCOPING REVIEW OF THE MOST RECENT RCTS

Indra Kusumah, Efri Widianti, Khaira Ashfiya Salafi

Volume : Vol 10 Issue 2 2022

Publication Date : 2022-12-20

SAPJ Code : 2050, 2010, 1020

Keywords : Adult, Anxiety, Breathing Exercises, Complementary Therapies, Mind-body Therapies

Abstract : Anxiety is a normal reaction that can interfere with one's emotions which can be the biggest problem in their life and affect physical and psychological health. Breathing exercise is one technique that is easy to use for decreasing anxiety. Objective: Determine breathing exercises that can reduce anxiety in adults. Methods: The articles were searched using PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and SAGE Journal databases. The inclusion criteria are articles that focus on breathing exercise for anxiety, full-text availability, articles published within 10 years (2012-2022), RCT (Randomized Controlled Trial) research, and articles in English or Indonesian. Results: 12 articles about breathing exercises related to anxiety in adults were obtained. Conclusion: Based on the articles obtained, 8 breathing exercises were found, which are diaphragmatic breathing relaxation, controlled Breathing techniques, alternate nostril breathing exercise, deep Breathing, pattern breathing, four breathing techniques, SKY breathing exercise, and Lamaze breathing technique.

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK MOTIVATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL BEING OF NURSES IN TUBERCULOSIS TREATMENT ROOMS IN THE CITY OF SALATIGA

Fiane de Fretes, Alfredo Alfaris Syaranamual, Emmanuel Satyo Yuwono

Volume : Vol 10 Issue 2 2022

Publication Date : 2022-12-20

SAPJ Code : 0, 0, 0

Keywords : Work Motivation, Psychological Well-Being, Nurses

Abstract : According to Health Human Resources (HHR), the highest number of health workers in 2015 came from 223,910 Nurses or 34.6% of total of health workers. Regarding to excessive number of nurses, there is attracting aspect to be reviewed, namely work motivation of a nurse. In fact, being a nurse has several challenges on doing the job. Health workers including nurses have higher accidents risk because of working and infectious diseases transmission rather than other industrial workers. Work motivation of nurses can be influenced by psychological well-being because if nurses work with pleased feeling, work motivation will be higher at work places. Objective: the objective of this research was to observe the relationship between work motivation and psychological well-being of nurses in tuberculosis treatment rooms. Methodology: This research used correlational quantitative method with data analysis technique (Pearson product moment). Sampling method used total sampling that sampled from November to December 2019. Results & Discussion: Work motivation of nurses came from self-encouragement to do activities, thus, they could achieve their goals. Nurses on doing their roles obliged to exert their best ability and the best skill in providing nursing services. According to Figure 1, there were 18 respondents (69%) with high-level work motivation and 7 respondents (27%) with moderate-level work motivation. Figure 2 illustrates percentage of psychological health that implied 23 respondents (88.46%) with moderate-level psychological well-being. Work motivation of nurses was not influenced by psychological well-being of them that was proved by hypothesis test.

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HEALTH BELIEF AND MENTAL HEALTH STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION IN MELONGUANE, TALAUD ISLAND

Rosiana Eva Rayanti, Desi, Ervin Agustin Tani

Volume : Vol 10 Issue 2 2022

Publication Date : 2022-12-20

SAPJ Code : 0, 0, 0

Keywords : Health Belief, Hypertension, Mental Health Status

Abstract : According to the Central Bureau of Statistics of Talaud Island Regency, in 2018, the number of hypertension sufferers in Talaud was 3.124. Uncontrolled stress became the main factor of hypertension. It needed prevention by studying and understanding the proper behavior using the health belief model (HBM) theory. This study aimed to describe hypertension patients' health beliefs and mental health status in the Talaud Islands Regency and to identify both of its relations. This study used a quantitative method with cross-sectional closure. This study was conducted in Melonguane City. The number of samples was 50 people who met the inclusion criteria. We used questionnaires of the health belief model, questionnaires of mental health inventory, and digital tensimeters. Data analyzed used The Pearson Product moment correlation to determine the correlation between the two variables. This study showed no relation between health belief and mental health status (p-value > 0.05). There is no relationship between these variables because health belief was the variable that represents the individual perception related to the disease that was suffered. In contrast, mental health status was the variable representing personal feelings in general, such as anxiety, depression, emotional loss of control, and some of the indicators.

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THE EFFECTS OF MASTERY LEVEL, FREQUENCY OF SMARTPHONE USAGE, AND SLEEP DISTURBANCES ON LIFE SATISFACTION OF MALAYSIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

Nur Syazana binti Aziz, Mazni Mustapha

Volume : Vol 10 Issue 2 2022

Publication Date : 2022-12-20

SAPJ Code : 0, 0, 0

Keywords : Smartphone Usage, Mastery, Sleep Disturbances, Life Satisfaction, University Students

Abstract : This study aims to determine whether mastery level, frequency of smartphone usage, and sleep disturbances could influence Malaysian university students’ life satisfaction. Specifically, it examines which variable has the most contribution to life satisfaction. To test the hypotheses that all predictor variables have a significant impact on life satisfaction, an online survey was distributed randomly to university students across Malaysia (N = 228). Measurement tools included the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Pearlin Mastery Scale (PMS). The answers were analysed using multiple regression analysis. The results showed small effects of mastery level and frequency of smartphone usage on life satisfaction however, sleep disturbances did not support the hypothesis. The multiple regression analysis demonstrated that mastery level has the most contribution to life satisfaction. Furthermore, this study discovered a piece of valuable information on factors that resulted in disturbed sleep which can be utilised for future research. Lastly, limitations and implications from this study and future research recommendations were also included in this paper.

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THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING TO REDUCE DEATH ANXIETY DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

Erna Risnawati, Fiqh Fajri, Muhammad Al Falaq HR

Volume : Vol 10 Issue 2 2022

Publication Date : 2022-12-20

SAPJ Code : 0, 0, 0

Keywords : Anxiety, Covid-19, Death Anxiety, Psychological Well-Being

Abstract : The COVID-19 pandemic that has occurred over the past two years has caused increased public anxiety, especially anxiety about death. This study aims to determine the role of psychological well-being on death anxiety during the covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia. This study uses accidental sampling with 301 respondents aged 13-60 years. Instruments of this study used PWBS (Psychological Well-Being Scale) by Ryff and DAS (death anxiety scale) by Templer. Data analysis used correlation test spearment. The result show there is a relationship between psychological well-being and death anxiety r = -.142 (p = .014, p < 0.5), greater Psychological well-being the lower the level of anxiety experienced. This research is expected to contribute to reducing death anxiety of COVID -19 by increasing psychological well-being. Future research is expected to find specific variables that can reduce death anxiety and treatments that can be increase psychological well-being for society.

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THE LEVEL OF HAPPINESS AMONG COUNSELLING STUDENTS IN MALAYSIA

Eng Su Yin, Guan Teik Ee

Volume : Vol 10 Issue 2 2022

Publication Date : 2022-12-20

SAPJ Code : 0, 0, 0

Keywords : Level of Happiness, Counselling Students, Gender, Malaysia

Abstract : This study examined the level of happiness among counselling students in seven public universities in Malaysia (N = 299). On therage, the counselling students' happiness score was 3.49 (SD = 0.502). This is a moderate score for happiness. The positive items most strongly agreed by participants were item 3 “I feel that life is very useful,” endorsed by 22.4% of the participants, followed by item 9 “Life is good” by 21.7% and em 11 “ I always laugh by 15.7% of the participants. On the other hand, the negative items strongly disagreed by participants were item 29 “I have no happy memories of the past,” endorsed by 52.5% of the participants, followed by item 24 “I have no particular meaning and purpose in my life,” endorsed by 43.5 of the participants and item 10 “I don't think that the world is a good place” endorsed by 42.5% of the participants. This showed that even though the level of happiness was only moderate, students still thought that life was good and meaningful. As for the difference of happiness between genders, the result showed that there was no significant difference of happiness between genders t(297)= 1.88, p>.05. This could be due to the equal opportunities given to all students; thus males and females shoulders the same responsibilities and burdens. The students went through the same Movement Control Orders and therefore had the same experiences in this hard time.

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THE EFFECTS OF EMOTION REGULATION DIFFICULTIES AND TIME MANAGEMENT ON PROCRASTINATION AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH (UMS)

Jennifer Janius, Balan Rathakrishnan

Volume : Vol 10 Issue 2 2022

Publication Date : 2022-12-20

SAPJ Code : 0, 0, 0

Keywords : Procrastination, Emotion Regulation Difficulties, Time Management, Undergraduate Student

Abstract : Procrastination is considered a serious societal problem and, it is important to study the factors influencing it. Emotion regulation difficulties and time management are considered as the potential predictor of procrastination. However, there are limited number of studies that investigate both variables in examining procrastination. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of emotion regulation difficulties and time management on procrastination among undergraduate students in UMS. In this study, a survey study with a quantitative approach was applied as the research design. A total of 152 respondents with the inclusion criteria of undergraduate students and full-time students were recruited through snowball sampling method. Each respondent has completed the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS), Brief version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS-18), and Time Management Questionnaire (TMQ). Pearson correlation analysis revealed that emotion regulation difficulties showed a significant positive relationship with procrastination, while time management showed a significant negative relationship with procrastination. The results of the multiple linear regression analysis revealed that emotion regulation difficulties and time management are significant predictors of procrastination (F_((2,149) )=78.933,p<.05), whereby emotion regulation difficulties showed a slightly larger contribution to procrastination compared to time management. Overall, the study’s finding has helped to fill the gap in the previous study while allowing further understanding on the procrastination phenomenon. The present study also provides guidance for future researchers when examining the effects of emotion regulation difficulties and time management on procrastination.

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COMPARING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AND JOB PERFORMANCE BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE EMPLOYEES IN UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH: COVID-19 POST PANDEMIC STUDY

Muhammad Ghazalie bin Mohamad Sabri, Razima Hanim binti Osman

Volume : Vol 10 Issue 2 2022

Publication Date : 2022-12-20

SAPJ Code : 0, 0, 0

Keywords : Gender, Psychological Well-being, Job Performance, Employee

Abstract : The COVID-19 pandemic has a significant impact on individual’s psychological well-being and job performance. This study aimed to examine the relationship between psychological well-being and job performance among male and female employees at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) in the post-pandemic period. A total of 152 employees participated in an online survey that assessed psychological well-being (using Psychological Well-being Survey) and job performance (using the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire- IWPQ). Results of a t-test revealed that female employees had significantly higher levels of most psychological well-being dimensions (autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, relations with others and self-acceptance). However, no significant difference was found between male and female employees in term of purpose in life dimension in psychological well-being. Meanwhile findings showed that female employees had significantly higher levels of two dimensions in job performance (task performance and conceptual performance) but not significant in counterproductive work behavior dimension in job performance. These findings suggest that male and female employees do differ in psychological well-being and job performance in the post-pandemic period. To determine strategies for promoting the psychological well-being and job performance of all employees in the post-pandemic period, further research is required to investigate potential explanations for these findings.

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PUNCA DAN KESAN MEDIA BERUNSUR AGRESIF TERHADAP TINGKAH LAKU REMAJA DI JOHOR BAHRU

Halimah Ma’alip, Azizi Yahaya, Nordin Ajmain, Pg. Razmahayati Pg. Hj. Mahmud, Ronnel

Volume : Vol 10 Issue 2 2022

Publication Date : 2022-12-20

SAPJ Code : 0, 0, 0

Keywords : Adolescents, Aggressive Media, Aggressive Behavior, Violence

Abstract : This study aims to examine the causes and effects of aggressive media on adolescent behavior. The respondents are adolescent who are also a highschool students in Johor Bahru. A total of 227 respondents consisting of 158 males and 69 females were involved in this study. A set of research instruments in the form of a questionnaire was used for the purpose of data collection. Part A is the demographic part. While part B, it is to explain the research objectives and to test the hypothesis. Questionnaire items in Part B are measured using a five-point Likert scale. The data obtained was processed using the Statistical Package for Social Science, Version 26.0 (SPSS) for descriptive and inferential analysis. A pilot study was conducted to measure the reliability of the questionnaire. The findings show that online games are the most dominant influence toeards the aggressive behavior of teenagers in Johor Bahru with a mean of 4.20. The findings also show that the effect of aggressive media, the reasons for watching aggressive, and the form of media programs are not a good predictor of adolescent aggressive behavior because only contribute 15%. This study has implications on the role of media that are to re-evaluate the broadcast programs to minimize aggression and violence elements that can cause adolescent aggressive behavior.

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