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The Desire to Be With Others: Exploring Social Rejection and Gender

Jame Bryan L. Batara(jblbatara@usc.edu.ph)

Volume : Vol. 2, 2014

Publication Date : 2014-11-24

SAPJ Code : 2070, 2070, 2070

Keywords : Rejection, Social Monitoring System (SMS), Need to Belong

Abstract : Social relationships are a big part of human life and threats to such relationships have vast implications. This study tested the contention of social monitoring system (SMS) suggesting that socially rejected individuals experience higher need to belong. A 2 (men/women) by 2 (acceptance/rejection) experimental design was conducted to explore gender’s role in the need to belong after a rejection experience. Participants (N = 68) wrote rejection or acceptance stories and responded to a Need to Belong Scale (Leary, Kelly, Cottrell, & Schreindorfer, 2005, as cited in Leary, Kelly, Cottrell, & Schreindorfer, 2013). Two-Way ANOVA results showed that felt rejection elicited heightened need to belong especially among women (F(3, 64) = 5.78, p = .019, partial eta = .083). This provides evidence in the SMS literature pointing to the role of gender in the need to belong of rejected individuals. Implications and limitations of the study were further discussed.

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Effects of Fast-Food Branding on Children’s Taste Preferences

Lai Siew Tim,Zuhrah Beevi (zuhrah_ahmad@imu.edu.my),Reiko Yeap (reiko.yeap@gmail.com)

Volume : Vol. 2, 2014

Publication Date : 2014-11-24

SAPJ Code : 2050, 4040, 4060

Keywords : childhood obesity,taste preferences,brand recognition

Abstract :

Health authorities and public communities stated that fast-food marketing is the most recognized potent force for contribution to childhood obesity. Much research has focused on the influence of television commercials on children’s eating behaviours, thus this study explored the effect of fast-food branding on children’s taste preferences. Sixty preschool children between three and six years old (M = 4.6, SD = 1.2) were grouped into Non-obese, Obese and overweight, according to their BMI values based on WHO classification. The study was divided into two stages. The initial stage comprised of a survey distributed to parents collecting information on family’s fast-food consumption habits. The second stage was an experiment designed to determine the effects of food packaging. Participants tasted three pairs of identical foods (burgers, nuggets and carrots) presented in either popular fast-food brand or neutral unbranded packaging before indicating whether the two tasted the same, or if one tasted better. Results reviewed that 63.3% of the participants preferred food presented in popular brand packaging. Furthermore, no differences were found between the groups across three food products [?² (2, n= 60), p>.05]. Findings imply that advocates should use this information to brand more nutritious products that is more appealing to children.

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Fears in Singaporean children: Identification of and comparison of fear dimensions between Singaporean, Australian, and American children

Robert Tack kwei Ho,Christy Lee-O’Loughlin

Volume : Vol. 2, 2014

Publication Date : 2014-07-21

SAPJ Code : 4040, 4120, 2030

Keywords : Fear; Emotion; Cultural influences; Fear intensity

Abstract :

This study was designed to investiagate the normal fears experienced by Singaporean children and to compare these fears with those reported by Australian and American children. A total of 1,234 Singaporean children aged 7 to 12 years filled in the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised questionnaire. The study's findings revealed that the top common fears reported by Singaporean children relate to fears that concern death and danger. Factor analysis yielded a 10 factor structure that relates primarily to the fears of danger and death, and fears related to negative social consequences. Compared to children in Australia and America, the findings from this study suggest higher fear sensitivity among Singaporean children towards ordinary day-to-day events. The implications of the study's findings for understanding fears in Singaporean children are discussed.

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How useful is the Rehearsal Scale for Children – Chinese in measuring emotional rehearsal in pre-adolescents of different ages?

Fiona C.M. Ling, Alison M. McManus, Rich S.W. Masters, Remco C.J. Polman

Volume : Vol. 2, 2014

Publication Date : 2014-07-21

SAPJ Code : 2030, 2050, 3060

Keywords : coping,anxiety,children,confirmatory factor analysis,structural equation modeling

Abstract :

 

The Rehearsal Scale for Children – Chinese (RSC-C) measures the propensity to rehearse emotionally taxing experiences in children, however, the initial development of the scale has overlooked the validity of the scale for pre-adolescents of different ages whose cognitive development may differ considerably. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the internal validity of RSC-C for the different age groups (aged 6-7, 8-9 and 10-12) across an age range of 6 to12 years. Confirmatory factor analysis based on the original factor structure suggested that the internal validity of the RSC-C is poor and the scale was modified for the age groups concerned. Test-retest reliability for the modified scales was stronger for the younger age groups and moderate concurrent validity against the Chinese Trait Anxiety Scale for Children (CTAS-C) was established. No gender differences were found. The results highlight the importance of testing the validity of a psychometric instrument across different age ranges, given the potential for significant developmental differences.  The current study also provided a new set of psychometrically sound RSC-C for the different age groups to promote greater understanding of the role of emotional rehearsal and psychological stress in physical and psychological well-being in young children.

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Transfer effects and permeable boundaries: An empirical study of the effects of commuting stress on employees’ work and life

Noor Diana Mohd Mahudin

Volume : Vol. 1, 2012

Publication Date : 2012-12-31

SAPJ Code : 4090, 0, 0

Keywords : Commuting stress,Work-life domains,Travel behaviour

Abstract : The impact of commuting stress has been addressed by only a few studies, most of which have been conducted in developed countries. Far less research has looked at the subjective, psychological effects of commuting on employees’ wellbeing within the Malaysian context. This paper describes a study which investigates the effects of commuting stress on commuters’ individual life and work domains. Data were collected from 660 commuters through a questionnaire survey and explored using correlation and regression analysis. The results show that longer commutes are significantly associated with a greater increase in commuting stress. They also reveal that the strain of commuting affects commuters’ reports of somatic symptoms of ill health and commute displeasure. In addition, commuting stress is found to affect commuters’ intention to quit their job but not in terms of their job or life satisfaction. Drawing on these results, theoretical and research implications that would lend support for future commuting stress research, particularly in Malaysia, are suggested.

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Attribution of poverty among Malaysian students in the United Kingdom

Murnizam Halik,Mohd Dahlan A. Malek, Ferlis Bahari, Norlizah Matshah, Paul Webley

Volume : Vol. 1, 2012

Publication Date : 2012-12-31

SAPJ Code : 1010, 2070, 0

Keywords : Malaysian students,Causal Attribution,Psychology of poverty

Abstract : This study investigates Malaysian students’ attribution of poverty and attitudes towards the poor in rural Malaysia. A combined total of 124 Malaysian students in the United Kingdom participated in this web-based survey. Factor analysis results reproduce the tripartite (individualistic, structural and fatalistic) structure for attribution of poverty. The results suggest that there is a statistically significant main effect for gender (F3,120=4.48, p=.005) wherein females have a higher attribution for poverty. On attitudes towards the poor, it was found that with upward social mobility, respondents have a more positive attitude towards the poor. It was recommended that further study should focus on how the poor attribute poverty

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Stress and coping skills among university students: A preliminary research on ethnicity

Lailawati Bte Madlan, Ferlis Bahari, Farhana Ardillah

Volume : Vol. 1, 2012

Publication Date : 2012-12-31

SAPJ Code : 2070, 5040, 0

Keywords : coping skills,ethnicity

Abstract : The objective of this research is to evaluate stress level and identify coping skills among students of Universiti Malaysia Sabah according to their ethnicity. A total of 252 subjects were involved in this research which comprised 124 females and 129 males. This study used the survey method by administering Mental Health Index (MHI) and Adolescent Coping Scale questionnaires to measure mental health and coping skill among students. The result from this research shows that ethnic Chinese had higher stress level as compared to students of other ethnic groups. Analysis on mean scores of Coping Scale show that students who were Sarawak Natives had higher mean scores compared to other ethnic groups.

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Behaviour Problems among special children in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah: Some preliminary findings

Mohd. Sharani Ahmad,Suwaibah Zakaria

Volume : Vol. 1, 2012

Publication Date : 2012-12-31

SAPJ Code : 4040, 4100, 0

Keywords : Behavior problems,Special children

Abstract : This paper reports on a pilot study which investigated the behavior problems among special children in Sabah. Questionnaires and interviews methods were used as the method to collect the relevant data. A total of 292 respondents in this study were taken from primary and secondary schools in Kota Kinabalu. They were comprised of primary and secondary special education teachers (N=82), primary and secondary school counselors (N=45), and primary and secondary school children (N=165). The results show that, there were 12 problems found among special children. The results indicated that, special education teachers ranked the problems such as more severe, disobedience, impertinence, tattling, and overcritical. What so ever, counselors noted the problems as more severe dishonesty, depression, hyperactivity, easily discouraged, enuresis, shyness, dependency, and dreaminess. The correlation between special education teachers and counselors rankings was significant at (p < 0.05), which indicated a similar point of view regarding the school children problems. The study also suggested several approaches in dealing with the special children behavior problems.

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Religion and gender differences in stress, happiness and life satisfaction

Carmella E. Ading, Chua Bee Seok, Shazia Iqbal Hashmi, Ismail Maakip

Volume : Vol. 1, 2012

Publication Date : 2012-12-31

SAPJ Code : 2050, 5110, 0

Keywords : happiness,spiritual involvement,life satisfaction

Abstract : Although the positive association between religiosity and gender differences in stress, happiness and life satisfaction is well documented, much theoretical and empirical controversy surround the question of how religion and gender actually shape life satisfaction and effect stress and happiness. This study aims to look at religion and gender differences in stress, happiness and life satisfaction among the university students and also examined the effects of spiritual involvement and happiness on life satisfaction. One hundred and seventy eight (178) students from a public University in Malaysia participated in the study. Adapted version of Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (Hatch et. Al., 1998), The Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) and The Oxford Happiness Inventory (Argyle, 2001) were used to collect data. t test was use to measure the differences in stress, spiritual involvement, happiness, and life satisfaction between the male and the female students, and it was found that, there were no significant differences between male and female students in terms of stress, spiritual involvement and life satisfaction but only happiness(t = 2.59, p < .05). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was use to measure the differences in stress, spiritual involvement, happiness, and life satisfaction by the students’ religious affiliation. Regression analysis was used to examine the effect of stress, spiritual involvement and happiness on life satisfaction. The regression results showed that 30% of the variance in life satisfaction can be explained by the variable of stress, spiritual involvement and happiness. Findings of the present study can help students applying religion as a coping strategy against stress thus enhancing their life satisfaction and happiness.

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The effect of emotional intelligence and job stress on mental health problems: a study among nurses

Chua Bee Seok, Shazia Iqbal Hashmi, Tan Cho Chiew

Volume : Vol. 1, 2012

Publication Date : 2012-12-31

SAPJ Code : 2050, 2060, 0

Keywords : emotional intelligence,job stress,mental health problem, nurses.

Abstract : The study attempted to examine the effect of emotional intelligence as a moderator of the job stress and mental health problem relationship. Data were collected from 677 nurses (361 trainees and 316 trained nurses) from three general hospitals in Malaysia. The Job Stress Survey (JSS) was adapted to assess generic sources of occupational stress. The Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) was adapted to assess level of emotional competence and a scale of Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) was adopted to investigate mental health problems among nurses. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of sources of stress and emotional competency on mental health problem. We also evaluated whether nurses who were skilful at regulating their own and others’ emotions would be able to protect themselves from the adverse effects of stress and reporting less mental health problem than those low in emotional intelligence.

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